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CDS Daily brief (12.09.22) | CDS comments on key events

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Humanitarian aspect:

Two people were killed, and two were injured due to the Sunday, September 11th Russian missile attack on critical infrastructure in Kharkiv Oblast, the press service of the State Emergency Service in Kharkiv Oblast reported. Head of the Kharkiv Oblast Military Administration Oleh Synehubov said that 80% of the electricity supply disrupted the night before was restored as of the morning of September 12.

As a result of the mass strikes of the Russian Federation on September 11, 40 electric substations of various voltages were cut off from the electricity supplies; four energy sector workers were killed and three injured, the Minister of Energy Herman Galushchenko said.

Around midnight, the Russian Federation carried out another missile attack on Kharkiv. One of the rockets hit a three-story residential building in the Novobavarsky district. The building collapsed. There was no fire, but one person died, and two were injured.

During the day, Oleh Synehubov reported two more instances of shelling of Kharkiv. One took place around 13:30 and one around 17:00. One person died, and 6 people were injured in the first strike. In addition, subway traffic was temporarily stopped in the city. Critical infrastructure facilities were also disabled by shelling, cutting electricity and water supplies.

During the first 11 days of the school year, another four thousand schoolchildren returned to Ukraine, and 488,000 school-age children remain abroad, the Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine Serhii Shkarlet said.

Head of the Coordination Headquarters on De-occupied Territories Iryna Vereshchuk signed a Memorandum with the head of the HALO Trust, an international charitable fund for demining. The parties discussed plans to increase the number of manual and mechanized demining teams in the liberated territories and agreed to conduct joint educational campaigns. Specifically now – during the mushroom picking season, inform people about the risks of encountering explosive objects in forests and forest strips.

About 160,000 square kilometers of the territories of Ukraine need demining, Deputy Minister of Defense Vyacheslav Shapovalov said.

Ukrainian Railway Company Ukrzaliznytsya scheduled an evacuation train from Donbas to Lviv for September 12. Ukrzaliznytsya warned passengers about the train delays to and from Kharkiv, Sumy, and Poltava due to the Russian shelling of infrastructure in Slobozhanshchyna.

Over the past two days, about 4,000 citizens have left dangerous regions and temporarily occupied territories. Thus, the total number of evacuees during the last month to date is more than 73,000 Ukrainians, the Reintegration Ministry reported.

Ukrzaliznytsya’s medical trains, launched with the support of the independent international medical organization Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), have made 50 trips and transported 1,800 people in half a year. Most trips transported people with special medical needs from the Donbas region, Ukrzaliznytsya said.

Reports of mass graves, civilian executions and disappearances are emerging from the recently liberated areas. Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group published a short article on the situation in Vysokopillia urban-type settlement and its surrounding area in Kherson oblast. In the village of Zaliznychne in the Chkalov territorial community, Kharkiv Oblast, Ukrainian law enforcement officers discovered four bodies of civilians with traces of torture.

At least a thousand civilians died in Izyum, Kharkiv Oblast, due to Russian occupation, 80% of the city’s infrastructure was destroyed, a member of Izyum City Council, Maksym Strelnikov, told a briefing at Media Center Ukraine – Ukrinform.

Occupied territories

Volodymyr Saldo, the Russia-installed head of the occupied part of Kherson Oblast, recorded a video claiming that he has been under the supervision of “serious doctors” and is now working on the region’s budget for next year. Saldo was hospitalized on August 5 in the occupied Crimea; doctors put him in a medically induced coma and connected him to a ventilator. The cause of his condition was not made public. However, there were rumors of poisoning and a stroke. Two other de-facto officials that had been reported killed by the Ukrainian resistance forces, namely deputy head of Nova Kahkovka Occupation Administration Vitaliy Hura and Deputy Police Chief Vitaliy Tomka, appeared on Russian TV today, claiming that they were going “back to work”.

In occupied Mariupol, the Russian Federation erected a monument to the Russian Prince Alexander Nevsky. The monument replaced a memorial to the Ukrainian military servicemen from Mariupol, who died in the first phase of the war, said Petro Andryushchenko, adviser to the mayor of Mariupol. Prince Alexander Nevskiy is increasingly used in Russian propaganda as someone Puttin is compared to.

In response to a wedding video from the occupied Crimean Bakhchisaray where guests danced to a Ukrainian patriotic song that appeared on pro-Russian Telegram channels, the so-called “head” of the occupied Crimea, Serhii Aksyonov, said that those who appear in these videos have to be identified, their businesses have to be shut down, and they have to be prosecuted. In a video address, Aksyonov said that these people would face criminal responsibility, they would be fired from their work, and their businesses would be closed down.

The Russia-appointed head of the occupied parts of Zaporizhzhya Oblast, Yevhen Balytskiy, said that the so-called referendum on joining Russia had been postponed indefinitely. Although he

did not mention the Ukrainian counteroffensive, he cited the need to make sure people can vote in safety. At the same time, he said that “referendum” is a technical formality: “Russia is already here, and we already feel like a part of it.”

Operational situation

It is the 201st day of the strategic air-ground offensive operation of the Russian Armed Forces against Ukraine (in the official terminology of the Russian Federation – “operation to protect Donbas”). The enemy continues to concentrate its efforts on establishing full control over the territory of Donetsk Oblast, maintaining control over the temporarily captured territories and disrupting the offensive of the Ukrainian troops in certain directions.

A continued threat of air and missile strikes throughout the territory of Ukraine persists. Over the past day, the Russian military launched 18 missile and 39 air strikes on military and civilian targets on the territory of Ukraine. More than 30 Ukrainian towns and villages were affected, particularly Kramatorsk, Kostyantynivka, Dnipro, Pavlohrad, and Velykomykhailivka. The Russian forces carried out another terrorist act; they launched a missile attack on the Kharkiv Thermal Power Plant, a critical infrastructure facility in the city. As a result, power was partially cut off in several Oblasts [of Ukraine].

The enemy shelled the positions of the Ukrainian troops with mortars and barrel artillery in the areas around Yastrubyne, Maiske, Seredyna Buda, Bachivsk, and Kindrativka in Sumy Oblast.

The [Russian] Western grouping of troops was placed under the command of the Central Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Colonel-General Lapin, who now commands the Central grouping of Russian forces in Ukraine.

Aviation of the Ukrainian Defense Forces carried out eight strikes, hitting a platoon stronghold, six areas of the Russian manpower and military equipment concentration, and one anti-aircraft missile system.

Ukrainian Forces destroyed Orlan-10 UAV, and shot down one Kh-59 cruise missile, four Kalibr sea-based cruise missiles and five Kh-101 air-based cruise missiles.

Ukrainian missile and artillery troops of the ground troops continue to conduct counter-battery combat, inflict damage on enemy manpower and combat equipment, and disrupt Russian command and control system and logistical support, as well as support the Ukrainian counteroffensive.

A long [publicy-available] discussion in Kyiv and then the announcement of a counteroffensive operation in Kherson Oblast drew significant Russian troops away from the areas where Ukrainian troops had actually counterattacked. The Ukrainian Armed Forces used HIMARS and other Western systems to attack Russian supply lines in Kharkiv and Kherson, setting the scene for the successful operation. In a very demonstrative way, the Ukrainian leadership discussed strikes in the south but successfully confused the Russians about the intentions in Kharkiv Oblast.

Western weapons systems were necessary but not sufficient for Ukraine’s success. The way Ukraine used these systems in a well-planned and well-conducted campaign ensured the extraordinary success of counterattacks in Kharkiv Oblast.

The morale and psychological state of the personnel of the invasion forces is considerably deteriorating due to significant losses and unwillingness to fight. The number of deserters in the Russian units is increasing.

Kharkiv direction
  • Zolochiv-Balakleya section: approximate length of combat line – 147 km, number of BTGs of the RF Armed Forces – 10-12, the average width of the combat area of one BTG – 13.3 km;
  • Deployed enemy BTGs: 26th, 153rd and 197th tank regiments, 245th motorized rifle regiment of the 47th tank division, 6th and 239th tank regiments, 228th motorized rifle regiment of the 90th tank division, 1st motorized rifle regiment, 1st tank regiment of the 2nd motorized rifle division, 25th and 138th separate motorized rifle brigades of the 6th Combined Arms Army, 27th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 1st Tank Army, 275th and 280th motorized rifle regiments, 11th tank regiment of the 18th motorized rifle division of the 11 Army Corps, 7th motorized rifle regiment of the 11th Army Corps, 80th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 14th Army Corps, 2nd and 45th separate SOF brigades of the Airborne Forces, 1st Army Corps of so-called DPR, PMCs.

The Russian forces fired from tanks, mortars, barrel and rocket artillery in the areas around Kostyantynivka and Udy.

An increasing number of Ukrainian towns and villages are liberated from the Russian occupation. During the retreat, Russian troops quickly abandoned their positions and fled deep into the temporarily occupied territories or the Russian Federation’s territory. This trend persists. Over the past day, the occupiers have taken [wle retreating] the looted property and seized vehicles from the local residents of Velikiy Burluk and Dvorichna, Kharkiv Oblast.

The Russian forces left Izyum, Oskil, Kamyanka, Udy, Martove, Borshchova, Hannivka, Hnylytsia, Chervona Khvyla, Golubivka, Kupyevakha, Velykiy Burluk, Mytrofanivka, Dvorichna. They began withdrawing troops from Kozacha Lopan, Makarove, Veterynarne, Lyptsi and Srilecha. The units of the enemy 2nd separate SOF brigade (Cherekha) of the Western Military District were withdrawn from the territory of Kharkiv Oblast to the Oktyabrsky district (Belgorod Oblast, Russia). They will probably be moved to Luhansk in the future. Preparations for withdrawing the BTG of the 200th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 14th Army Corps of the Northern Fleet from Hoptivka to Belgorod Oblast are underway.

In order to prevent the further advance of the Ukrainian troops, the Russian military is moving units of the 74th separate motorized rifle brigade of the Central Military District from Svatove towards Kupyansk. They blew up a bridge across the Siverskyi Donets River near Staritsa and mined bridges over the Vovcha River and Siverskyi Donets River.

Ukrainian troops entered Vovchansk and Veliky Burluk, cutting Russian land supply lines along the T2104 route, and reached the international border north of Kharkiv. On September 11, Ukrainian troops took control of Izyum and settlements to the south and southwest. Stabilization measures are being implemented.

Russian troops are withdrawing from villages around the city of Kharkiv, from the northern part of the Kharkiv region and villages on the western bank of the Oskil River.

The Russian military leadership lacks sufficient reserves to complete the formation of a new defense line along the Oskil River, which it is trying to form before Ukrainian forces continue to advance through this position. Common sense would require Russia to withdraw troops from other sectors of the battlespace to establish defense lines further east of the Oskil River to ensure that Luhansk Oblast administrative border, or a line as close as possible to the border, is held.

Kramatorsk direction
  • Balakleya Siversk section: approximate length of the combat line – 184 km, the number of BTGs of the RF Armed Forces – 17-20, the average width of the combat area of one BTG – 9.6 km;
  • 252nd and 752nd motorized rifle regiments of the 3rd motorized rifle division, 1st, 13th and 12th tank regiments, 423rd motorized rifle regiment of the 4th tank division, 201st military base, 15th, 21st, 30th separate motorized rifle brigades of the 2nd Combined Arms Army, 35th, 55th and 74th separate motorized rifle brigades of the 41st Combined Arms Army, 3rd and 14th separate SOF brigades, 2nd and 4th separate motorized rifle brigades of the 2nd Army Corps, 7th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 1st Army Corps, PMCs.

The Russian forces shelled the positions of the Ukrainian units with barrel, jet artillery and tank weapons in the areas around Siversk, Raihorodok, Mykolaivka, Bohorodychne, Kryva Luka, Sloviansk, Verkhnokamyanske, Ivano-Daryivka, Hryhorivka, Rozdolivka, Zvanivka, and Spirne. They carried out airstrikes in the areas around Spirne (with a pair of Su-25s), Shchurove (with a pair of Ka-52s), and Mykolaivka (with a pair of Ka-52s).

The successful actions of the Ukrainian Defense Forces forced the enemy to move away from Bohorodychne. The enemy is moving reserves from the rear areas.

In Luhansk Oblast, Russian military personnel and their families left the town of Svatove; only local residents that served in the so-called “people’s militia of the LPR” remained.

As a result of the successful actions of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Russian military left Sukha Kamyanka, Donetske, Yaremivka, Pasika, Synycheno, Brazhkivka, Sulyhivka, and Dovhenke.

Donetsk direction
  • Siversk – Maryinka section: approximate length of the combat line – 235 km, the number of BTGs of the RF Armed Forces – 13-15, the average width of the combat area of one BTG – 17 km;
  • Deployed BTGs: 68th and 163rd tank regiments, 102nd and 103rd motorized rifle regiments of the 150 motorized rifle division, 80th tank regiment of the 90th tank division, 35th, 55th and 74th

separate motorized rifle brigades of the 41st Combined Arms Army, 31st separate airborne assault brigade, 61st separate marines brigade of the Joint Strategic Command “Northern Fleet”, 336th separate marines brigade, 24th separate SOF brigade, 1st, 3rd, 5th, 15th, and 100th separate motorized rifle brigades, 9th and 11th separate motorized rifle regiment of the 1st Army Corps of the so-called DPR, 6th motorized rifle regiment of the 2nd Army Corps of the so-called LNR, PMCs.

The Russian military shelled the positions of the Ukrainian Defense Forces in the areas around Vesele, Yakovlivka, Soledar, Bakhmutske, Bakhmut, Mykolaivka Druga, Zaitseve, Karlivka, Vodyane, Pervomaiske, Krasnohorivka, Maryinka, and Novomykhailivka.

Ukrainian Defense forces repelled Russian attacks near Mayorsk and Krasnohorivka. Fighting continues in Mykolaivka Druga and Zaitseve areas.

The enemy led offensive actions by units of the 3rd separate motorized rifle brigade of the 1st Army Corps in the directions of Zaitseve (lower)- Mayorsk; Dacha-Mykolaivka Druga; Kodema – Mykolaivka Druga; Semyhirya – Zaitseve; Kodema – Zaitseve; Zaitseve (lower) – Zaitseve; Vershyna – Zaitseve; Dacha – Ozaryanivka; Kodema – Kurdyumivka; Kodema – Ozaryanivka, but failed and withdrew.

Zaporizhzhya direction
  • Maryinka – Vasylivka section: approximate length of the line of combat – 200 km, the number of BTGs of the RF Armed Forces – 17, the average width of the combat area of one BTG – 11.7 km;
  • Deployed BTGs: 36th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 29th Combined Arms Army, 38th and 64th separate motorized rifle brigades, 69th separate cover brigade of the 35th Combined Arms Army, 5th separate tank brigade, 37 separate motorized rifle brigade of the 36th Combined Arms Army, 135th, 429th, 503rd and 693rd motorized rifle regiments of the 19th motorized rifle division of the 58th Combined Arms Army, 70th, 71st and 291st motorized rifle regiments of the 42nd motorized rifle division of the 58th Combined Arms Army, 136th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 58 Combined Arms Army, 46th and 49th machine gun artillery regiments of the 18th machine gun artillery division of the 68th Army Corps, 39th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 68th Army Corps, 83th separate airborne assault brigade, 40th and 155th separate marines brigades, 22nd separate SOF brigade, 1st Army Corps of the so-called DPR, and 2nd Army Corps of the so-called LPR, PMCs.

Enemy shelling is recorded in the districts of Novopil, Novoandriivka, Poltavka, Hulyaipole, Zaliznychne, Novosilka, and Vremivka. The Russian military dealt airstrikes in Poltavka (with a pair of Ka-52) and Stepove (with a pair of Su-25).

Kherson direction
  • Vasylivka–Nova Zburyivka and Stanislav section: approximate length of the battle line – 252 km, the number of BTGs of the RF Armed Forces – 27, the average width of the combat area of one BTG – 9.3 km;
  • Deployed BTGs: 114th, 143rd and 394th motorized rifle regiments, 218th tank regiment of the 127th motorized rifle division of the 5th Combined Arms Army, 57th and 60th separate motorized rifle brigades of the 5th Combined Arms Army, 135th, 503rd and 693rd motorized rifle regiments of the 19th motorized rifle division, 70th, 71st and 291st motorized rifle regiments of the 42nd motorized rifle division, 51st and 137th parachute airborne regiments of the 106th parachute airborne division, 7th military base of the 49th Combined Arms Army, 16th and 346th separate SOF brigades.

There is no change in the operational situation. After the successful actions of the Ukrainian Defense Forces, the Russian military suffered significant manpower losses. According to the available information, the 810th separate marines brigade (permanently stationed in Sevastopol) lost almost 85% of its personnel. The rest of the servicemen have extremely low morale; they refuse to return to the combat zone en masse.

In order to transfer troops and provide logistical support to its units, the Russian military is building a pontoon-bridge crossing over the Dnipro River in the Kardashynka area.

During the day, the enemy ferries moved 50 pieces of equipment in the districts of Korsunka and Nova Kakhovka (ICVs and trucks) and 30 tanks and ICVs, 35 trucks were moved over the bridge at Kakhovska HPP.

According to preliminary information, an enemy echelon with military equipment (about 60 pieces, including armored personnel carriers, guns and trucks), ammunition and personnel arrived at the “Kalanchak” railway station in Kherson Oblast. After unloading, the equipment was moved through Novokiivka in the direction of Kherson.

Kherson-Berislav bridgehead
  • Velyka Lepetikha – Oleksandrivka section: approximate length of the battle line – 250 km, the number of BTGs of the RF Armed Forces – 22, the average width of the combat area of one BTG – 11.8 km;
  • Deployed BTGs: 108th Air assault regiment, 171st separate airborne assault brigade of the 7th Air assault division, 4th military base of the 58th Combined Arms Army, 429th motorized rifle regiment of the 19th motorized rifle division, 33rd and 255th motorized rifle regiments of the 20th motorized rifle division, 34th and 205th separate motorized rifle brigades of the 49th Combined Arms Army, 224th, 237th and 239th Air assault regiments of the 76th Air assault division, 217th and 331 Air assault regiments of the 98th Air assault division, 126th separate coastal defense brigade, 127th separate ranger brigade, 11th separate airborne assault brigade, 10th separate SOF brigade, PMC.

The Russian forces shelled the positions of the Ukrainian troops with tanks, mortars, barrel artillery, anti-aircraft guns, anti-tank missiles in the areas around Myrne, Partyzanske, Bilohirka, Novohredneve, Blahodativka, Velyke Artakove, Sukhy Stavok, Kostromka, Bezymenne, Bila Krynytsia, Ivanivka, Novovoznesneske, Osokorivka, Arkhangelske, and Zarichne.

As a result of the successful actions of the Ukrainian Defense Forces, the Russian military moved away from Myrolyubivka. They fortify advanced positions in the direction of a possible [Ukrainian] breakthrough.

The Russian military conducted offensive (assault) operations employing units of the 83rd separate airborne assault brigade in the direction of Kostyrka and Novovoznesensk. They were unsuccessful, suffered losses, and retreated.

The Russian military moved seven tanks of the 126th separate coastal defense brigade of the 22nd Amry Corps to the Myrolyubivka area. Seven APCs, four light armored multi-purpose transporters and self-propelled guns from the 34th separate motorized rifle brigade of the 49th Combined Arms Army of the Southern Military District were moved to Arkhangelske, Novopetrivka areas.

The occupiers conducted remote mining of possible advance routes of the Ukrainian Defense Forces in Mala Seidemenukha, Kostromka and Myrolyubivka.

In the area around Dudchany, the Russian military is setting up a defense line, to which it has moved about 30 pieces of weapons and military equipment.

Azov-Black Sea Maritime Operational Area:

The forces of the Russian Black Sea Fleet continue to project force on the coast and the continental part of Ukraine and control the northwestern part of the Black Sea. The ultimate goal is to deprive Ukraine of access to the sea and connect unrecognized Transnistria with the Russian Federation by land through the coast of the Black and Azov seas.

Along the southern coast of Crimea, there are four enemy cruise missile carriers, a frigate, two small missile ships and a submarine. Up to 24 enemy Kalibr missiles are ready for a salvo. Additionally, 14 other enemy warships and vessels of the auxiliary fleet of the Russian Black Sea Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla are at sea, providing reconnaissance and blockade of navigation in the Azov-Black Sea waters.

Last evening, central Ukraine was hit by 6 Kalibr missiles from a surface ship in the Black Sea. Five of the six missiles were shot down by Ukrainian air defense.

Four large amphibious ships are maneuvering near the southern part of the occupied Crimea. The rest of the amphibious ships (8 units) are in the ports of Novorossiysk and Sevastopol for replenishment and scheduled maintenance. There are no signs of preparation for an amphibious assault on the southern coast of Ukraine.

Three enemy project 636.3 submarines are on high alert in Sevastopol. Enemy aviation continues to fly from Crimean airfields Belbek and Gvardiyske over the northwestern part of the Black Sea. Over the past day, 11 Su-27, Su-30 and Su-24 aircraft from Belbek and Saki airfields were involved.

On September 12, as part of the implementation of the “grain initiative”, nine ships with 163.8 thousand tons of agricultural products left the ports of “Odesa”, “Chornomorsk” and “Pivdenny”. They are headed for the countries of Asia and Europe. On September 12, the ports of Greater Odesa plan to accept 13 vessels for loading with Ukrainian agricultural products. At 10:00 a.m., six ships were moored near the berths of the ports of “Odesa”, “Chornomorsk”, and the port of “Pidvdenny”. Since the departure of the first ship with Ukrainian food, 2.78 million tons of agricultural products have been exported. A total of 122 ships left Ukrainian ports with agricultural products that were sent to the countries of Asia, Europe and Africa.

Operational losses of the enemy from 24.02 to 12.09

Personnel – almost 52,950 people (+300);

Tanks – 2,168 (+14);

Armored combat vehicles – 4,640 (+23);

Artillery systems – 1,269 (+6);

Multiple rocket launchers (MLRS) – 311 (0); Anti-aircraft warfare systems – 162 (0); Vehicles and fuel tanks – 3,463 (+18); Aircraft – 243 (+1);

Helicopters – 213 (0);

UAV operational and tactical level – 903 (+1); Intercepted cruise missiles – 216 (0);

Boats / ships – 15 (0).

Ukraine, general news

The court arrested the former head of the Kharkiv SBU Directorate, Roman Dudin, for two months without bail, the State Investigative Buro said. Dudin headed the Kharkiv SBU Directorate until May 2022. He is suspected of treason and voluntarily abandoning his post.

President Volodymyr Zelenskyi relieved Fedor Venislavskyi from the duties of the Representative of the President of Ukraine in the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and appointed Serhiy Dembovskyi instead. At the same time, the President appointed Venislavskyi as his Representative in the Verkhovna Rada.

International diplomatic aspect

The US will provide Ukraine with two hundred M113 armored personnel carriers under the next defense aid package. Meanwhile, the German defense Minister reiterated Berlin’s “no tanks and infantry fighting vehicles for Ukraine” policy. “No country has delivered Western-built infantry fighting vehicles or main battle tanks so far,” said Christine Lambrecht. “We have agreed with our partners that Germany will not take such action unilaterally.” Yet she expressed her belief that Germany was obliged to play a leading global role in the military domain and that the country should not be afraid of the responsibility. It seems that she doesn’t see a contradiction between stepping up the role of Europe’s security provider and not supporting Ukraine enough unless

Christine Lambrecht thinks there’s no connection between Ukraine’s fight and the peace and security of Europe as a whole.

The director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency doesn’t demand Russia withdraw all its troops and weapons but calls both sides “to agree on a very simple principle of not attacking, or not shelling, the plant.” Pressed on whether his proposal includes demilitarization, Rafael Grossi replied: “Basically, it’s a commitment that no military action will include or will imply aiming … at the plant, or a radius that could be affecting its normal operation.”

For eight years, Ukraine had seen the “impartial” approach of the OSCE that had called “both sides”, including the victim of the aggression, to restrain from specific actions even when only Russia violated the ceasefire or other arrangements. The Russian criminal seizure of the nuclear power plant shouldn’t become a precedent not accepted by the international community, either de facto or de jure. Ukraine’s foreign ministry outlined the only acceptable way to go: de- occupation, demilitarization and turning the control over the ZNPP to Ukraine.

Russia, relevant news

The decision of the EU Council to suspend the agreement on the simplified visa regime with the Russian Federation enters into force on September 12. The number of new visas for Russians should be significantly reduced. The visa fee is now €80 instead of €35. In addition, more documents will be required, the processing time will increase, and the issuance of multiple-entry visas will be limited.

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