Centre for Defence Strategies

Ukraine is only an object and not the strategic aim of the Hybrid War. It is a conflict between Russia and the West over the world order, and the conflicting ideas of the authoritarian “Russian World” and the Western liberal democracies. A Russian victory in Ukraine is, however, a prerequisite for its global ambitions.

An effective counterstrategy must be developed and implemented accordingly: Europe-wide and across all sectors, focusing on people, their needs and the institutions established to serve them.

This report aims to conceptualise the Hybrid War in order to develop the understanding needed to establish a holistic counterstrategy. It is based on the Ukrainian experience as seen through the eyes of a former defence attaché and national and international subject matter experts. Crimea is used to illustrate the combined effects of the military and non-military means employed as the basis for the recommended countermeasures.